There were two types of leaders in the women’s rights movement. On one side were those who were victims of sex discrimination and benefited from the campaign of organizations such as the ACLU that fought for gender equality. On the other side were those who were leaders of organizations such as the ACLU and worked to further the cause of women. These people were Pauli Murray and Dorothy Kenyon.
Murray and Kenyon
Murray’s experiences with segregation inspired her to pursue a career in civil rights law. She enrolled in law school at Howard University in 1941, the only woman in her class. One professor commented on her choice to attend law school and later coined the term “Jane Crow” to draw attention to the unfair sex discrimination she had experienced.
After graduating from college, Murray became a lawyer and lectured at various institutions. In 1967, she was named vice president of Benedict College. She later became a professor at Brandeis University, teaching law until 1973. She introduced classes in women’s studies and African-American studies. After her stint at Brandeis, Murray became the first African-American woman to become a state deputy attorney general. She also published two autobiographies and a volume of poetry.
Murray co-authored an article on Title VII with Mary Eastwood, comparing sex discrimination laws to Jim Crow laws. She also co-founded the National Organization for Women in 1966, which sought to create a women’s equivalent of the NAACP for women’s rights.
Murray was a civil rights activist, feminist, and lawyer. She also became an Episcopal priest in 1968. She convinced Betty Friedan that the NAACP needed to include black women in the ranks. She had been the only woman in her graduating class at Howard University. She was rejected from Harvard Law School because of her gender. She later received a doctorate in juridical science from Yale University. In her career, she pushed for equal opportunities for all, including those in positions of power.
Murray’s career began as an advocate for Odell Waller. In 1935, Waller, a black sharecropper in Virginia, was sentenced to death for killing a white landlord. Murray toured the country, raising money to support the appeal of Waller’s case. Eventually, President Franklin D. Roosevelt wrote Virginia Governor James Hubert Price on Waller’s behalf, and she persuaded him to commute Waller’s sentence to life in prison. But Waller was eventually executed in 1942.
Simone de Beauvoir
Simone de Beauvoir helped pioneer the women’s liberation movement in France. She wrote the Manifesto of the 343 in support of abortion rights and started the feminist section of the magazine Les Temps Modernes. She was influenced by French philosophy, including phenomenology, history, and the philosophy of G. W. F. Hegel. She also wrote a successful novel, The Second Sex, which was awarded the Prix Goncourt and is still a significant text investigating women’s oppression.
Simone de Beauvoir’s autobiography began when she was still a child. As a young girl, she met Elizabeth “Zaza” Le Coin, a Catholic schoolgirl who had a very outgoing personality. The two women were influenced by their experiences with society and its social norms. It’s possible that their lives together helped to shape Simone’s sense of feminism and social justice.
The Second Sex contains two main opposing views on the nature of leadership. One side advocates a political revolution, and the other supports the continuation of the status quo. The other side focuses on changing the social structures and practices to ensure equal treatment for both men and women. This means changing laws, changing customs, and educating women.
Her relationships complicated Simone de Beauvoir’s career. In 1932, she was a French teacher in Rouen. While teaching, she developed a romantic relationship with a student named Olga Kozakiewicz. The relationship between Simone and Olga posed a threat to de Beauvoir’s self-perception.
Simone de Beauvoir was a philosopher and writer who believed in individual freedom within a community. She also believed in the importance of community and equality. In her writing, she explored the roles of women in society and the challenges women face as they age. Her long works were beautifully crafted and incredibly insightful.
Sara Mandelbaum was a lawyer who joined the Women’s Rights Project in 1992 following Joan Bertin and Isabelle Katz Pinzler’s departure. Mandelbaum was attracted to the organization’s mission of helping needy women and focusing on cases private lawyers would not touch. These cases often involved Title VII cases against large corporations and obtaining large financial settlements.
While working at WRP, Joan Bertin was deeply involved in a lawsuit against American Cyanamid, a company that required female workers to undergo sterilization. She worked closely with the women’s union to make the workplace a safe one for women and was successful in getting a favorable settlement out of court.
Ginsburg, who had fought against sex discrimination on the job, envisioned a world where men and women would build new traditions. She hoped that the existing barriers would be removed and women would have access to all avenues of opportunity. She was also instrumental in founding the ACLU Women’s Rights Project. In addition, she was the first woman to be granted tenure at Columbia Law School.
The WRP grew as the organization worked to fight for equal rights for both genders. The goal of the WRP, as described by Mary Heen, was to help women achieve full citizenship. Eventually, WRP’s scope expanded to include Title VII and Equal Protection cases.
Despite being imprisoned and facing physical attacks, Paul fought to achieve women’s suffrage. Paul organized the first Washington, DC, parade of women, which more than eight thousand people attended. The march was a protest against Woodrow Wilson’s refusal to amend the Constitution. Paul established the Congressional Union for Woman Suffrage, which worked to bring women’s suffrage to the people of America.
In his day, Paul was considered a progressive writer. Today, the primary controversy focuses on passages that oppose women in the ministry. However, Paul primarily addressed the cultural context of his day. The Jewish community had traditionally placed women at the mercy of their husbands and in a sexless marriages.
The Church of England has approved legislation to make women bishops. Opponents and supporters of women bishops have argued that St. Paul had female leaders in the early Christian community. However, supporters say St. Paul’s message is crucial because he paved the way for the early Churches to spread outside of the Holy Land.
Paul commended women who could reach social independence and roles in ministry. In the same way, he condemned men who abused women in their service. The two sides differed, but Paul was a feminist and believed in women’s rights.
The early church allowed women to participate in worship services alongside men. Women were also allowed to prophesy and pray. Even though Paul did not discourage women from engaging in public ministry, his concern was to protect women’s dignity and to respect social convention.
Stanton and Anthony were co-founders of the National Woman Suffrage Association, which represented the cause of women’s suffrage. Later, the organization split into two – one led by Stanton, the other by Anthony. In the meantime, Stanton continued to work on a wide range of issues related to women’s rights.
The two women became best friends when they were young and later married. They shared a political platform and were the driving force behind the women’s rights movement. They both believed in equal rights for men and women and were opposed to the Fifteenth Amendment, which provided voting rights only to Black people. This rift hurt the movement significantly.
Henry Stanton and Elizabeth Cady were both women who had strong political convictions. Although Henry Stanton was not wealthy, he sympathized with the ambitions of both women. While he spent most of his time working in the financial sector, Elizabeth continued to raise children and write for the feminist cause. She also organized the first women’s rights convention in America in 1848.
While both women had similar goals, their leadership styles were different. The two women also disagreed on how to handle different political situations. Even though they had very different types, they were fiercely dedicated to the cause of women’s suffrage. They felt that they were more deserving of the vote than men. Although both women had a strong desire to achieve equality, they were discouraged by the sex discrimination they faced in the South.
The fight for suffrage continued after the Civil War. Both women continued to fight for equality for women and black Americans, including establishing the Female Medical College of Pennsylvania. They also sought to reconcile the different factions of the Women’s Suffrage Movement.