In the year 632, when the Prophet Muhammad died, there was a great deal of disagreement about who should be the next leader of Islam. One group believed that the leadership should remain within Muhammad’s family. Two prominent members of Muhammad’s family were Ali and Abu Bakr. Ali was Muhammad’s cousin, and Abu Bakr was his friend and the father of one of his wives.
After the Prophet Muhammad died in 632, there was a split in the Muslim community between the Sunni and Shia sects. The Sunni group believed that tribal traditions should be honored, and that the most influential elder should be chosen to lead. The Shia group, on the other hand, believed that the leadership should remain in Muhammad’s family. While both groups have claimed the right to lead, the differences between the two groups are substantial and can lead to conflict.
The Sunni group is the largest of the two. It is a socially conservative group that rejects the legitimacy of the monarchy. They seek to change the political system and make Sharia law the primary source of legislation. The party has not yet embraced democracy, although it has supported women’s rights and equality in parliament.
The Prophet Muhammad was a mortal man who was given certain powers by God to bring his message to the world. These powers made Muhammad special and distinguished him from ordinary people. Moreover, Muslims believe that God granted him the distinction of being sinless. The Qur’an describes Muhammad as a man who made mistakes, but who never sinned against God. The Prophet’s life is described as an example for everyone to follow.
The Shiite group believes that the Islamic leadership should remain in Muhammad’s family. The Shiite group was named after Muhammad, and consists of Shia and Sunni groups. They have been the dominant group in Iran since the time of the Prophet Muhammad. They are also a minority of Muslims worldwide. During the Safavid dynasty, Iran became a stronghold for the Shi’a.
The Shiite group is the majority in the oil-rich Persian Gulf region. Their main centers are in Iraq, Iran, and southern Lebanon. The Shiites are also found in parts of Saudi Arabia, Syria, and Afghanistan. The original split between the Sunnis and Shiites occurred around the year 632.
The division between the Shia and the Sunni groups started after the Prophet Muhammad’s death. Many Muslims believed that the successor should be someone from Muhammad’s family. Others thought that the leadership should be chosen by the elite of the community. These differences led to the split between the Sunni and Shia groups.
The Umayyad dynasts were a Muslim ruling family during the early Islamic period, and they believed that the leadership of Islam should remain in Muhammad’s family. They built an empire that was large and had rapid conquest. Muawiyah moved the capital to Damascus and made Arabic the official language. They also encouraged non-Arabs to convert to Islam.
The Umayyads had a long history in a region of the Middle East that is now known as Greater Syria. They ruled over the country until the year 680 when Muawiyah died. After Muawiyah’s death, there was a second fitna, and Marwan I was the next ruler. The Umayyads remained the dominant power in Greater Syria, with Damascus as their capital.
The Umayyads oversaw an enormous expansion of trade in the Middle East and North Africa. The Prophet Muhammad was a merchant, and the dynasty codified longstanding commercial practices of the Arabic society. They also supported maritime trade networks and maintained a strong presence in the Mediterranean and Persian Gulf. Muslim traders also regularly traveled to India and China on trade routes.
The Umayyad dynasts were known for their tolerance of non-Muslims. Their policies were also highly favorable to Jews and Christians. While most people were Muslim during this time, approximately 10% of the population was non-Muslim. The non-Muslims were called dhimmis. They had to pay a head tax and were not allowed to share in the spoils of war. However, many Jews and Christians considered Arab rule to be preferable to Byzantine rule. The Arabs did not persecute religious dissenters and had lower taxes than Byzantium.
The Umayyads made many changes to the government. Their first four caliphs adopted the administrative practices of the Byzantine Empire, dividing their political and military affairs into three sub-sections: military and religious administration. In addition, they created a Central Board of Revenue that regulated the empire’s finances and disbursed revenue. Moreover, they created a regular Board of Correspondence that issued circulars and state missives to provincial and local officers.
While the Umayyads wanted the islamic leadership to stay in Muhammad’s family, Shiites believed that the leadership should have remained in Ali’s family. This split between Sunni and Shia is now a bitter and violent conflict in parts of the Mideast. The Umayyads ruled for nearly 100 years from Damascus before being ousted by the Abbasids, who claimed to be Muhammad’s relatives.
Leaders of Mecca tribes
The leadership of Islam should stay in Muhammad’s family, so that the Prophet could continue to rule. He had a good relationship with his uncle Abu Talib, who was also the leader of the Hashimite clan. However, the leaders of the tribes did not agree with Muhammad’s stance on the leadership of Islam. The leaders of Mecca tribes did not like the idea of Muhammad ruling over their land and did not want him as the leader.
The Prophet Muhammad is said to have come into Mecca with his head bowed. This was because he was humbled by his victory, and he saw it as a gift from God. The Meccans had oppressed the Muslims for many years and Muhammad saw this victory as a sign from God. This is why he remained quiet and refused to fight until Allah gave him permission. The Quran teaches that violence should only be used in self-defense, when the enemy is attacked, and if the enemy surrenders.
In year 632, Prophet Muhammad died. Various factions arose to choose his successor. Some believed the leadership should stay in Muhammad’s family. These included Ali, Muhammad’s cousin, and Abu Bakr, the father of one of Muhammad’s wives.
The Quraysh tribe was one of the most powerful in Mecca. They controlled the water rights to the holy place. They also had alliances with tribes across the peninsula. This allowed them to send caravans from Mecca to Yemen.
The tribes in Mecca believed that Muhammad’s family should be the leader of Islam. The Prophet was born in Mecca in 570 and raised by a grandfather who was the head of the Hashim clan. His mother died when Muhammad was six, and his uncle Abu Talib raised him. The Prophet trained as a merchant and later married a wealthy widow. He had four daughters during this period.
The fledgling Muslim community relied on its ability to defend itself against attacks from Mecca. To do this, Muhammad crafted an innovative political solution. While the emergence of the Islamic faith was relatively small, the early Muslim community faced constant threats. But Muhammad was confident and empowered to overcome the challenges that arose.
Leaders of Iraq tribes
When the Prophet Muhammad died, there were two factions that disagreed on who should rule the Muslim world. One faction believed that the leadership should be kept within Muhammad’s family. It included Abu Bakr, Muhammad’s cousin, and Ali, the father of one of Muhammad’s wives.